FAQ's(Frequently Ask Questions)

FAQs:Ques : How many sub-species of tigers are there globally?

Ans :

Traditionally eight sub-species of tigers have been recognized, out of which three are extinct.
           
Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758). Bengal tiger.  Indian subcontinent.
P.t. virgata (Illiger, 1815). Caspian tiger.  Turkey through central and west Asia.  (extinct since the Seventies).
P.t. altaica (Temminck, 1844).  Amur tiger.  Amur Rivers region of Russia and China, and North Korea.
P.t. sondica (Temminck, 1844).  Javan tiger.  Java, Indonesia. (extinct since the Eighties).
P.t. amoyensis (Hilzheimer, 1905).  South China tiger.  South central China.
P.t. balica (Schwarz, 1912).  Bali tiger.  Bali, Indonesia.  (extinct since the Forties).
P.t. sumatrae (Pocock, 1929).  Sumatran tiger. Sumatra, Indonesia.
P.t. corbetti (Mazak, 1968).  Indo-Chinese tiger.  Continental south-east Asia.
 
Based on molecular markers, six sub-species are now recognized:
 
(1)        Amur Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica)
(2)        Northern Indo-Chinese Tiger (P.t. corbetti)
(3)        South China Tiger (P.t. amoyensis)
(4)        Malayan Tiger (P.t. jacksoni)
(5)        Sumatran Tiger (P.t. sumatrae)
(6)        Bengal Tiger (P.t. tigris)
           
The Indian sub-species is Panthera tigris tigris.

FAQs:Ques : What is the general status of tigers in tiger range countries at present?

Ans :

The general status is as below:
 
¨       Bhutan                         :           115-150 (including juveniles)
¨       Bangladesh                   :           359 (Forest Deptt. Estimates, 1992)
¨       Cambodia                     :           200 (Forest Deptt. Estimates, 1994)
¨       China                            :           No Estimate of wild Tigers Available
¨       Myanmar                      :           100-125 (Consensus Estimate)
¨       Malaysia                       :           400-500 (rough estimate)
¨       Indonesia                     :           400 Sumatran Tigers in 7 Reserves
– 100 in Unprotected Areas 
¨       North-Korea                 :           Presence of Wild Tigers
¨       Vietnam                        :           150 approx.
¨       Laos                             :           NA
¨       India                            :           1100-1600 (in 2006-2007), 1520-1909 in 2010
¨       Nepal                           :           96 (adult tigers 2009)
¨       Thailand                       :           No Systematic Survey Report Available. 15 populations occurs.
¨       Russia                           :           About 400 (based on track counts & telemetry)          
 
Between 2500 to 3500 wild tigers survive in the World.

FAQs:Ques : Why save tigers?

Ans :

Tigers are terminal consumers in the ecological food pyramid, and their conservation results in the conservation of all trophic levels in an ecosystem. 

FAQs:Ques : What is Project Tiger?

Ans :

Project Tiger is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Government of India which was launched on the 1st of April, 1973 for in-situ conservation of wild tigers in designated tiger reserves.

FAQs:Ques : Which are the States where Project Tiger is implemented?

Ans :

Wild tigers are found in 18 of our States, viz. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mizoram, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.  Project Tiger is being implemented in these States in collaboration with the respective State Governments. 

FAQs:Ques : What is the strategy adopted for tiger conservation in Project Tiger?

Ans :

Broadly, the strategy involves exclusive tiger agenda in the core/critical tiger habitat, inclusive people-wildlife agenda in the outer buffer, besides fostering the latter agenda in the corridors.  This strategy / roadmap is reflected in a tiger reserve specific Tiger Conservation Plan for each reserve prepared under section 38V of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. 

FAQs:Ques : What kind of support is provided under Project Tiger?

Ans :

Under Project Tiger, 100% central assistance is provided for non-recurring items of expenditure to the States, besides 50% matching grant for recurring items (90% for North Eastern States), based on the Annual Plan of Operations of tiger reserve, proposed by the State vis-à-vis the Tiger Conservation Plan. 

FAQs:Ques : What is the role of National Tiger Conservation Authority?

Ans :

The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) is a statutory body of the Ministry, with an overarching supervisory / coordination role, performing functions as provided in the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

FAQs:Ques : What is the role of National Tiger Conservation Authority?

Ans :

The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) is a statutory body of the Ministry, with an overarching supervisory / coordination role, performing functions as provided in the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

FAQs:Ques : How do we count our tigers?

Ans :

The All India tiger estimation is carried out once in every four years.  Based on the Tiger Task Force approval, a refined double sampling method using camera traps in a statistical framework was first used in 2006 country level tiger assessment.  The second round of such an assessment was completed in 2010.  

FAQs:Ques : What is the role of Project Tiger NTCA in day to day protection

Ans :

The day to day administration / management / field interventions / protection are done by the State officials in field formations (tiger reserves), as the land belongs to States.  The role of Project Tiger / NTCA is to provide technical guidance and funding support.  However, the following are ensured at the level of NTCA / Project Tiger (GOI):

   Alerting the States as and when required
o    Transmitting backward / forward linkages of information relating to poachers
o    Advising the States for combing forest floor to check snares / traps
o    Performing supervisory field visits through the National Tiger Conservation Authority and its regional offices
o    Providing assistance to States for antipoaching operations
o    Using information technology for improved surveillance (e-Eye system) using thermal cameras
o    Launching tiger reserve level monitoring using camera trap to keep a photo ID database of individual tigers
o    Preparing a national database of individual tiger photo captures to establish linkage with body parts seized or dead tigers
o    Assisting States to refine protection oriented monitoring through monitoring system for tiger’s intensive protection and ecological status (M-STrIPES)
o    Providing grant through NTCA for patrolling in tiger rich sensitive forest areas outside tiger reserves
o    Assisting States to deploy local workforce in a big way for protection to complement the efforts of field staff [In all, approximately 24 lakh mandays are generated annually with 50% central assistance amounting to around Rs. 24 crores (excluding matching 50% share given by States) under Project Tiger.  Many local tribes constitute such local workforce (besides non-tribals), eg. Baigas, Gonds in Madhya Pradesh, Gonds in Maharashtra, Chenchus in Andhra Pradesh, Sholigas in Karnataka, Gujjars in Uttarakhand and Irulas in Tamil Nadu to name a few].
o    Supporting States for raising, arming and deploying the Special Tiger Protection Force

 

FAQs:Ques : What you can do to protect tigers?

Ans :

Tiger conservation / protection is a collective responsibility between the Centre, tiger States and country citizens.  Every citizen can contribute to the conservation / protection of wild tigers and some suggestions in this regard are:
 
(a)           Learn as much as you can about wild tigers
(b)          In case information on poaching is available, inform the local Wildlife Warden / forest department without delay
(c)           In case of forest fire, inform the local forest office
(d)          Foster awareness about tiger conservation by participating in discussions, exhibitions and local campaigns
(e)           Focus on rural areas close to tiger reserves for motivating local people to desist from sudden changes in cropping patterns, land uses, polluting wetlands and rivers
(f)           In collaboration with like minded people, participate in veterinary camps for vaccinating domestic dogs and livestock against diseases which may spread to wild animals (or vice-versa)
(g)           Interact with local schools for mainstreaming conservation as an important curricular/ extra curricular activity
(h)          Collaborate with the nearest Wildlife Warden in conservation events during the wildlife week
(i)            Learn about the human-wildlife interface in your area and suggest innovative safeguards
(j)           Help the wildlife authorities during capture of wild animals by convincing local people against crowding near the capture area
(k)           In case butchery garbage is not disposed, inform the local authorities for the needful
(l)            Volunteer to assist the tiger reserve management in addressing problems relating to floods / fire / drought
(m)          Become eyes and ears of tiger reserve management on issues like poaching, encroachment and habitat destruction
(n)           Stay informed about tiger issues 

FAQs:Ques : How do we monitor our wild tigers?

Ans :

 Besides the once in four years snapshot country level assessment, the tigers are monitored in tiger reserves through a special field protocol (Phase-IV monitoring) which involves recording day to day field evidences in prescribed format, collating camera trap pictures of tigers, collection of scat samples in difficult areas, besides using smart patrolling protocols like M-STrIPES in some reserves.  Every tiger reserve has a catalogue of camera trap photo capture of individual tiger. 

FAQs:Ques : How far Project Tiger has succeeded in its mission?

Ans :

Due to concerted efforts under Project Tiger since 1973, India alone has the maximum number of tigers and its source areas amongst the 13 tiger range countries.  Project Tiger has been more than successful in its endeavour and has put the endangered tiger, our national animal, on an assured path of recovery.  In the contemporary global scenario, this effort hardly has any parallel. 

FAQs:Ques : What are corridors and why do we need them?

Ans :

Corridors are inherent geographical linkages (through forests, river courses or other habitat attributes) which facilitate movement of tiger and other wild animals from one source area to another.  Such linkages are essential for gene flow to prevent insularization of source areas. 

FAQs:Ques : What kind of research is ongoing on the tiger front?

Ans :

Several research findings exist on the tiger and the ongoing research broadly include: spatial use pattern studies using radio telemetry, predation, population estimation, gene flow through scatology and ethology. 

FAQs:Ques : What are the challenges facing wild tiger conservation?

Ans :

The challenges include: protection against poaching, fragmentation of habitat, securing inviolate space for tiger to facilitate its social dynamics, addressing tiger-human interface, restoration of corridors and eliciting public support of local people by providing ecologically sustainable options.  

FAQs:Ques : What are the challenges facing wild tiger conservation?

Ans :

The challenges include: protection against poaching, fragmentation of habitat, securing inviolate space for tiger to facilitate its social dynamics, addressing tiger-human interface, restoration of corridors and eliciting public support of local people by providing ecologically sustainable options.  

FAQs:Ques : What are the challenges facing wild tiger conservation?

Ans :

The challenges include: protection against poaching, fragmentation of habitat, securing inviolate space for tiger to facilitate its social dynamics, addressing tiger-human interface, restoration of corridors and eliciting public support of local people by providing ecologically sustainable options.  

FAQs:Ques : How tourism is facilitated in tiger reserves?

Ans :

The National Tiger Conservation Authority / Project Tiger has issued a comprehensive set of guidelines for regulated tourism in tiger reserves to benefit tiger, visitors and local people. 

FAQs:Ques : What is the latest estimate of wild tigers in India?

Ans :

The country level tiger population has shown an increasing trend with a population estimate of 1706, lower and upper limits being 1520 and 1909 respectively in the recent all India estimation (2010), as compared to the last country level estimation of 2006, with an estimate of 1411, lower and upper limits being 1165 and 1657 respectively

FAQs:Ques : How do we protect our wild tigers?

Ans :

 The main focus of Project Tiger is field protection.  Every tiger reserve has beat level (or analogous units in some States) patrolling camps with basic day to day monitoring done by field staff, assisted by local people on contract / daily wages.  Communication using wireless, mobile phones, networking with neighbouring field units, surveillance through day to day patrolling and Phase-IV monitoring using camera traps (with a database of minimum number of tigers in each reserve) are ensured.   Funding support is also provided for 24X7 e-surveillance in some sensitive reserves like Corbett, Kaziranga, besides Ratapani Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh.  SOPs and capacity building are done for field staff / officers.

FAQs:Ques : What are Indias international efforts to save tigers

Ans :

India has a bilateral understanding with Nepal on controlling trans-boundary illegal trade in wildlife and conservation, apart from a protocol on tiger conservation with China. A protocol has been signed with Bangladesh for conservation of the Royal Bengal Tiger of the Sundarban.  A Global Tiger Forum of Tiger Range Countries has been created for addressing international issues related to tiger conservation.  India is signatory to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).  A sub-group on tiger/leopard has been constituted with Russia for co-operation on tiger & leopard conservation.  Transboundary Cooperation Protocols with Bhutan and Myanmar are being processed.

 

Official Website of Melghat Tiger Project, Amravati