The Reserve forms a very important catchment to Tapi and Purna river systems with important tributaries like Dolar, Khandu, Sipna, Gadga, Khapra and Wan rivers. The Chandrabhaga river which originates from Chikhaldara has its watershed in the reserve. The basic life support systems that the area beholds in terms of conserving soil, water and clean air, it serves as life-line for the people of Amravati, and Akola districts.
Water is most prevalent limiting factor in MTR and at present there are J32 water holes both natural and artificial.
Climate :-Climate of MTR is varying due to variation in altitude, aspect and distinct seasons viz Monsoon or rainy, Winter,Summer seasons. The area experiences a good rainfall during monsoon which varies from 950 mm to 1400 mm with average number of rainy days about 65 to 60.
Temperature varies considerably with altitude. The high hills, plateau and valleys to the North of Gavilgarh ridge are cooler in summer than the southern foothills. The plateau and high hills enjoy almost equitable pleasant climate throughout the year. The average mean maximum annual temperature is 460 C. and the average mean minimum temperature is 40 C.
In a Nutshell:- The floristic mix of shrubs, herbs and grass communities is a high impact attribute which governs the relative abundance of wildlife. Melghat harbours a wide variety of wildlife and is rich in avifauna, Tiger, Panther, and Wild dogs are the major carnivores. Jackal and Hyena are the scavengers and survive on the carcass left over by top predars. The prey animals are Gaur, Sambar, Barking deer, Spotted deer, Nilgai and Wild pigs, Chausinga etc. There animals are fairly common.
The ocular data about habitat availability and their evaluation indicates that the major tract of the plain area is still a good habitat for major Mammalian and Avian population. The presence of 58 villages has put lots of biotic pressure. The trend indicates deterioration of habitat near villages and calls for immediate restorative steps in the areas in the vicinity of villages.
MTR having inviolate area as 1673.93 Sqm which is more than the required area to inhabitate 20 breeding hgresses so that reserve will sustain a population of 75 to 100 tigress and has very low probability of extinction (< 5% in 100 years). And thus MTR fulfills the suggestion shown in demographic parameters and life history traits of tiger population, Simulation model.
All these feature and values of MTR and its large area make MTR as an ideal habitat for flagship species Tiger and its prey species.